Fiona Tyrie worked for the government for two years straight after finishing at university. She trained as a primary school teacher and worked briefly as a year six teacher. She then went on to run businesses which arrange specialist tours for groups from South East Asia. After this, she progressed to running three businesses, one of which she took over and turned around, then just kept going. Fiona started teaching at SIT in 2007. She has been involved with SIT’s on-site and on-line programmes for business and hotel management and was also a programme manager for seven years.
- Areas of lecturing: Fiona teaches business studies to postgraduates and hotel management to undergraduates.
- Areas of specialisation: Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Business Sustainability, Tourism, Research Methods.
- Aside from the description above, I would also like to add that Fiona was my tutor for my postgraduate studies.
1. What is ‘referencing’ in academic studies?
As a student, you need to ask yourself why you need to include referencing in your research project or assignment and is it mandatory to use referencing in your studies. In academic writing, a student has a set time frame in which to complete his/her studies, and you will need to validate your own opinions with evidence while writing a research project or an assignment. Referencing is the way in which you provide evidence and proof to support your statements in your own work.
According to Fiona Tyrie, qualifications gained from countries such as New Zealand, Australia, United Kingdom, and the United States of America do not require the student to memorise or know textbook material by heart, but they do expect the student to think creatively and to work out how to solve problems in order to gain a genuine benefit by achieving the qualification. Referencing in academic studies helps the reader to distinguish between the student’s own ideas and opinions, and the contributions of other writers, by respecting their intellectual property rights.
2. What is the APA format, and how is the APA referencing style different from the other formats?
The APA referencing format is a type of Harvard referencing, according to Fiona Tyrie. Harvard referencing or author-date style is a generic description for any reference style. APA referencing is more than 100 years old, and many academic organisations extensively use it.
The American Psychologist Association developed the APA referencing style; however, there are other different referencing styles such as MLA, Oxford, Harvard, and Chicago. Each of these referencing styles has its own rules for citing sources.
MLA, Harvard and APA use author-date style reference while Chicago and Oxford use documentary-note style reference.
According to FionaTyrie, the main difference in APA referencing style ( or author-date-style) is that you need to provide the author’s name within the text of the assignment. By contrast, in the Chicago and Oxford referencing style, (documentary-note style) , the student adds the author’s name in a footnote at the bottom of each page or as an endnote at the end of the assignment or research project.
The APA referencing style is commonly used in education, business and the humanities disciplines, while MLA is used mainly for English and media studies. Similarly, the Oxford referencing is often used in history, philosophy and the classics, and the Harvard and Chicago styles are used by individual disciplines.